Aldehydes: Properties, Synthesis, and Applications in Organic Chemistry


C=O (carbonyl group with hydrogen

An aldehyde is a type of organic compound that contains a formyl group (-CHO) as its functional group. Aldehydes can be represented by the general formula RCHO, where R is an alkyl or aryl group. The carbon atom in the formyl group is sp2 hybridized, which gives the carbon a planar geometry.

Aldehydes can be produced by the oxidation of primary alcohols or the partial oxidation of primary or secondary alcohols. They can also be obtained from the dehydrogenation of primary alcohols under acidic conditions.

Some common examples of aldehydes include formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), and benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO). Aldehydes are often used as intermediates in organic synthesis and as starting materials for the production of other compounds, such as carboxylic acids and alcohols.

Aldehydes have a characteristic carbonyl group, which makes them highly reactive and susceptible to nucleophilic addition reactions. They can also undergo oxidation reactions to form carboxylic acids or reduction reactions to form primary alcohols. Aldehydes are important functional groups in organic chemistry and have a wide range of applications in various fields, including the food industry, pharmaceuticals, and polymers.

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