Decoding the Language of Life: The Significance of Codon Sequence in Protein Synthesis

during translation the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide depends on the

codon on the mRNA I and the anti-codon on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached

sequence of codons in the mRNA.

Translation is the process by which ribosomes synthesize proteins from mRNA templates in the cytosol of a cell. During translation, amino acids are added one by one to the growing polypeptide chain, ultimately forming a mature protein.

The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA determines the sequence of amino acids that will be incorporated into the polypeptide chain during translation. Specifically, each set of three nucleotides in the mRNA (called a codon) codes for a specific amino acid.

There are 20 different amino acids used to synthesize proteins, each of which is specified by one or more codons. For example, the amino acid phenylalanine is encoded by the codon UUU or UUC in the mRNA. Similarly, the amino acid serine is specified by the codons UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU, and AGC.

During translation, transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules bring the appropriate amino acids to the ribosome, where they are added to the growing polypeptide chain in the correct order. Each tRNA molecule has a specific anticodon that is complementary to a specific codon in the mRNA. This allows the tRNA to bind to the mRNA and deliver the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome.

In summary, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide during translation depends on the sequence of codons in the mRNA template.

More Answers:

Unlocking the Function of tRNA in Proper Protein Synthesis: A Guide to its Role in Translation
Unraveling the Three Key RNA Types: mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA’s Role in Protein Synthesis
The Double Helix Structure of DNA: A Breakthrough Discovery by Watson and Crick in 1953

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