Golgi Apparatus and its role in Protein and Lipid Modification and Sorting.

Golgi apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

The Golgi apparatus, sometimes referred to as the Golgi complex or Golgi body, is a cytoplasmic organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It was first discovered by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi in 1898.

The Golgi apparatus is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids that are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It consists of a stack of flattened, membrane-bound sacs called cisternae that are arranged in a curved or crescent shape. The cisternae are separated from one another by small fluid filled spaces or vesicles.

The Golgi apparatus modifies proteins and lipids by adding or removing carbohydrates, phosphates, and sulfates, as well as by folding and cutting polypeptide chains. Once the proteins and lipids are modified, they are sorted into vesicles based on their final destination within the cell or for secretion outside of the cell.

The Golgi apparatus also plays a role in the formation of lysosomes, which are membrane-bound structures containing hydrolytic enzymes that break down macromolecules. Lysosomes are formed from small vesicles that bud off from the Golgi apparatus.

In summary, the Golgi apparatus acts as a processing and sorting center for proteins and lipids, as well as a site for the formation of lysosomes.

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