Neurons: The Essential Building Blocks of the Nervous System

The basic, functional units of the nervous system aredendritesneuronsaxonsoligodendrocytes


The basic, functional units of the nervous system are neurons. Neurons are specialized cells within the nervous system that are responsible for transmitting and processing information. Neurons consist of three main parts: dendrites, cell body, and axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors and transmit this information to the cell body. The cell body contains the nucleus and other organelles necessary for the neuron’s metabolic functions. Finally, the axon transmits signals away from the cell body and toward other neurons or cells. Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cell that provide support and insulation for neurons in the central nervous system by producing myelin. While important for nervous system function, they are not considered basic, functional units of the nervous system like neurons.

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