## p value is the

### probability value, also known as the p-value, is a statistical measure used in hypothesis testing to quantify the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis

probability value, also known as the p-value, is a statistical measure used in hypothesis testing to quantify the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is no significant difference or relationship between variables being compared. The p-value helps researchers determine if there is enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis in favor of an alternative hypothesis.

In hypothesis testing, the p-value represents the probability of obtaining results as extreme as the observed data, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. It is often interpreted as the probability of obtaining a test statistic as extreme or more extreme than the one observed, purely due to chance. A small p-value indicates strong evidence against the null hypothesis, suggesting that there is a real effect or relationship between the variables.

The p-value is typically compared to a predetermined significance level (denoted by alpha), usually set at 0.05 or 0.01. If the p-value is less than or equal to the significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. This means that the observed data is unlikely to occur if the null hypothesis is true, providing support for the alternative hypothesis.

It is important to note that the p-value is not a measure of the magnitude or practical significance of the effect being studied. It only indicates the statistical significance of the observed results. Other factors such as sample size, effect size, and practical importance should also be considered when interpreting the results of a hypothesis test.

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