## with significance testing, Beta is:

### In significance testing, Beta (β) refers to the probability of committing a Type II error

In significance testing, Beta (β) refers to the probability of committing a Type II error. In statistical hypothesis testing, there are two types of errors that can be made: Type I error and Type II error.

Type I error occurs when we reject a null hypothesis that is actually true. It represents the probability of falsely rejecting the null hypothesis and is denoted by the symbol Alpha (α). The significance level chosen at the beginning of the test determines the probability of Type I error. A commonly used significance level is 0.05 (5%).

On the other hand, Type II error occurs when we fail to reject a null hypothesis that is actually false. Beta (β) represents the probability of committing a Type II error. It is also influenced by the chosen significance level, the effect size, sample size, and the power of the test. Power (1 – β) is the complement of Beta and represents the probability of correctly rejecting a false null hypothesis, or in other words, the probability of detecting a true alternative hypothesis.

In significance testing, we aim to minimize both Type I and Type II errors. However, there is always a trade-off between these two error rates. As the significance level decreases (lowering the risk of Type I error), the probability of committing a Type II error (Beta) increases unless we have a larger sample size or a more substantial effect size.

Overall, Beta (β) is used as a measure to quantify the risk of accepting the null hypothesis when it is actually false. It helps us assess the power of a statistical test and provides information about the probability of making a Type II error.

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