## Probability

### Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the likelihood of an event occurring

Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the likelihood of an event occurring. It quantifies the uncertainty and measures the chance of an event happening. Probability is represented as a value ranging from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty. The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is to occur.

To calculate probability, you need to consider the total number of possible outcomes and the number of favorable outcomes. The probability of an event occurring is given by dividing the number of favorable outcomes by the total number of possible outcomes.

For example, let’s say we have a fair six-sided die. The probability of rolling a specific number, such as a 3, is 1 out of 6 because there is only one favorable outcome (getting a 3) out of six possible outcomes (rolling any number from 1 to 6). Therefore, the probability of rolling a 3 is 1/6.

Probabilities can also be expressed as fractions, decimals, or percentages. In the example above, the probability of rolling a 3 can be written as 1/6, approximately 0.1667 as a decimal, or 16.67% as a percentage.

It’s important to note that in probability, events are often assumed to be independent, meaning the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of another event. However, there are situations where events are dependent, and in such cases, conditional probability is used to calculate the likelihood of an event happening given that another event has occurred.

Probability theory has numerous applications in various fields, including statistics, finance, physics, biology, and more. It helps in making informed decisions based on the likelihood of different outcomes, assessing risks, and understanding random phenomena.

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