## An F1 plant that is homozygous for shortness is crossed with a heterozygous F1 plant. What is the probability that a seed from the cross will produce a tall plant? Use a Punnett square to explain your answer and to compare the probable genetic variations in the F2 plants.

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To solve this question, we need to first understand the genetic makeup of the F1 plants. The F1 plant that is homozygous for shortness means that it has two alleles for shortness, which we can denote as bb. The heterozygous F1 plant has one allele for shortness (b) and one allele for tallness (T), which we can denote as Tb.

Using a Punnett square, we can cross these two plants and predict the possible offspring:

From the Punnett square, we can see that there are two possible genotypes for tallness in the F2 generation: TbTb and Tbb. Since the T allele is dominant, any plant with at least one T allele will be tall.

To calculate the probability of a seed producing a tall plant, we need to look at the ratio of tall plants to total plants in the F2 generation.

From the Punnett square, we can see that there are 2 out of 4 possible genotypes that will produce tall plants. This means that the ratio of tall plants to total plants is 2/4, or 1/2. Therefore, the probability of a seed producing a tall plant is 1/2 or 50%.

In terms of genetic variations in the F2 plants, we can see from the Punnett square that there are three possible genotypes: Tbb, TbTb, and Tbb.

This means that there are two possible phenotypes: short and tall. The ratios of the genotypes and phenotypes can be predicted using the Punnett square. We can expect a ratio of 1 TT : 2 Tt : 1 tt genotypes, which corresponds to a ratio of 1 tall : 2 intermediate : 1 short phenotype.

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