## Euclidean Geometry

### Euclidean geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of flat or two-dimensional figures and their properties, as well as the relationships between these figures

Euclidean geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of flat or two-dimensional figures and their properties, as well as the relationships between these figures. Named after the Greek mathematician Euclid, it is considered the oldest and most well-known form of geometry.

In Euclidean geometry, the basic building blocks are points, lines, and planes. A point has no size and is represented by a dot. A line is made up of an infinite number of points and extends infinitely in both directions. A plane is a flat surface that extends infinitely in all directions and is made up of an infinite number of lines.

Euclidean geometry is based on a set of fundamental axioms or assumptions, which include the following:

1. A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points.

2. A straight line can be extended infinitely in both directions.

3. Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn having the segment as its radius and one of its endpoints as the center.

4. All right angles are congruent (equal).

5. If two lines are drawn that intersect a third line in such a way that the sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two right angles, then the two lines will eventually intersect each other on that side if extended far enough.

Using these axioms and basic geometric notions, such as angles, triangles, circles, and polygons, various theorems and properties can be proven in Euclidean geometry. For example, some well-known theorems are the Pythagorean theorem, which states that in a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides, and the triangle inequality theorem, which states that the sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle must be greater than the length of the remaining side.

Euclidean geometry has many practical applications in fields such as architecture, engineering, and physics. It provides a framework for analyzing and understanding the properties and relationships of shapes and figures in a flat or two-dimensional space. It serves as the foundation for more advanced branches of geometry, such as analytic geometry and non-Euclidean geometry.

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