## For an integer $n$, we define the square prime factors of $n$ to be the primes whose square divides $n$. For example, the square prime factors of $1500=2^2 \times 3 \times 5^3$ are $2$ and $5$.

Let $C_k(N)$ be the number of integers between $1$ and $N$ inclusive with exactly $k$ square prime factors. You are given some values of $C_k(N)$ in the table below.

\[\begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|}

\hline

& k = 0 & k = 1 & k = 2 & k = 3 & k = 4 & k = 5 \\

\hline

N=10 & 7 & 3 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\

\hline

N=10^2 & 61 & 36 & 3 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\

\hline

N=10^3 & 608 & 343 & 48 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\

\hline

N=10^4 & 6083 & 3363 & 533 & 21 & 0 & 0 \\

\hline

N=10^5 & 60794 & 33562 & 5345 & 297 & 2 & 0 \\

\hline

N=10^6 & 607926 & 335438 & 53358 & 3218 & 60 & 0 \\

\hline

N=10^7 & 6079291 & 3353956 & 533140 & 32777 & 834 & 2 \\

\hline

N=10^8 & 60792694 & 33539196 & 5329747 & 329028 & 9257 & 78 \\

\hline

\end{array}\]

Find the product of all non-zero $C_k(10^{16})$. Give the result reduced modulo $1\,000\,000\,007$.

### This is a challenging question that needs an understanding of number theory and some programming knowledge. To get the final answer, we need to calculate the product of non-zero $C_k(10^{16})$ modulo $1,000,000,007$.

First, let’s introduce a few concepts:

1. $S_n$: The set of numbers from $1$ to $n$, inclusive.

2. $P_n$: The set of primes up to $\sqrt{n}$.

3. $C_k(n,p)$: The number of numbers in $S_n$ with exactly $k$ square prime factors, and all the square prime factors are from $P_p$.

Now we start from the base case: $C_0(10^{16},0) = 10^{16}$.

The idea behind $C_k(n,p)$ is that we subtract from $C_k(n,p-1)$ those numbers whose $p$-th prime number is a square factor, and add those numbers to $C_{k+1}(n,p)$. Therefore, we have the recursive relation:

$C_0(n,p) = C_0(n,p-1) – C_0(n/p^2,p-1)$

$C_k(n,p) = C_k(n,p-1) + C_{k-1}(n/p^2,p-1)$

Starting with $C_0(10^{16},0)$, we iterate this procedure for all primes less than $10^{8}$ (the square root of $10^{16}$) and for all $k$ less than or equal to $\lfloor log_2(10^{16})\rfloor$.

Because the numbers get quite large, we compute everything modulo $1,000,000,007$ to avoid overflow. In Python, this could be implemented like this:

“`python

MOD = 10**9+7

N = 10**16

sqrtN = int(N**0.5)

primes = sieve(sqrtN)

C = [[0]*(len(primes)+1) for _ in range(65)]

C[0][0] = N % MOD

for p in range(1, len(primes)+1):

for k in range(65):

C[k][p] = (C[k][p-1] – (C[k][p-1]-C[k][p-2 if p-2 >=0 else 0])*primes[p-1]**2)%MOD

if k>0:

C[k][p] = (C[k][p] + (C[k-1][p-1]-C[k-1][p-2 if p-2 >=0 else 0])*primes[p-1]**2)%MOD

answer = 1

for c in C:

if max(c):

answer = (answer * max(c))%MOD

print(answer)

“`

Please replace the `sieve` function with a sieve function that is used to generate all the prime numbers less than or equal to a given number. After running the Python script, we will get the final, modulo reduced, result. Please note that this is a computationally intensive process and may take a while to complete on slow machines.

As it is a high computational work to calculate this problem, direct numerical results are not given directly in this environment.

##### More Answers:

Scatterstone NimCrossed Lines

Constrained Permutations