## Let’s call a pair of positive integers $p$, $q$ ($p \lt q$) reciprocal, if there is a positive integer $r\lt p$ such that $r$ equals both the inverse of $p$ modulo $q$ and the inverse of $q$ modulo $p$.

For example, $(3,5)$ is one reciprocal pair for $r=2$.

Let $F(N)$ be the total sum of $p+q$ for all reciprocal pairs $(p,q)$ where $p \le N$.

$F(5)=59$ due to these four reciprocal pairs $(3,5)$, $(4,11)$, $(5,7)$ and $(5,19)$.

You are also given $F(10^2) = 697317$.

Find $F(2\cdot 10^6)$.

### To solve this math problem, we need a solid understanding of modular arithmetic and inverses. It’s helpful to breakdown this problem into smaller parts before we attack the the problem as a whole. So, here’s how to approach it:

Given $p$ less than $q$, the condition given in the question means that the inverse of $p$ (mod $q$) is equal to that of $q$ (mod $p$). Let’s call this common inverse value as $r$. So:

$r * p ≡ 1$ (mod $q$)

$r * q ≡ 1$ (mod $p$)

Let’s take this one step forward:

Suppose we have the equation $r * p – 1 = h * q$ for some integer $h$. Following the same logic, we also have the equation $r * q – 1 = k * p$ for some integer $k$.

Multiplying these two equations, we get:

$r*r*p*q – r*p – r*q + 1 = h*k*p*q$

This can be rearranged to:

$r*r- (h*k) = (r/h)*p + (r/k)*q + (1/hk)*pq$

Given that $r, p, q$ must be integers, so must $(r/h)*p + (r/k)*q + (1/hk)*pq$.

Let’s look back at the problem. It’s important to note that the value of $r$ is less than $p$ which is less than $q$ (as stated in the problem). Therefore, the right side of the equation can be an integer only when the fractions ($r/h$, $r/k$, and $1/hk$) are integers themselves. This leads us to conclude that $h$, $k$, and $r$ must be the same value for the right-side of the equation to be an integer. So, this means $h = k = r$.

With the conclusion that $h$ = $k$ = $r$, we can rewrite our original equations as:

$r*p – 1 = r*q$

$r*q – 1 = r*p$

Multiplying these two equations again, we get:

$r*r*p*q – r*p – r*q + 1 = r*r*p*q$

This implies:

$r*p + r*q = 1$

Given that $r, p, q$ are positive integers, the minimum value of $p$ + $q$ should be 2r and the maximum value can be 4r (since for maximum value, during the reaching to the maximum value of $p+q$, $q>= 2r$, but $r

Here, it might be helpful to note that $r > 1$ because $p + q > 2r$.

Finally, we need to add the values of all $p+q$ pairs that satisfy these conditions for $r$ ranging from `2` to `N/2` to calculate $F(N)$. Hence, given $F(10^2) = 697317$ and we’re asked to find $F(2\cdot 10^6)$, we would need to write a code to calculate this as it would be unrealistic to manually calculate this.

The code for this would use nested loops to first calculate the pairs for each $r$ value from 2 to `N/2` then, within each loop, calculate the pairs where $p+q$ ranges from `2r` to `4r` and check if these numbers satisfy the “reciprocal” conditions. If the conditions are met, the pair of $p$ and $q$ is summed and added to a growing total.

This is a complex problem involving modular arithmetic and the use of a specific set of mathematical conditions. If there are parts of the problem you’re still unsure about, it might be helpful to work through more examples or speak with a math tutor who can explain these concepts in more detail.

Given its complexity, this problem seems to be from a math competition problem like those from the Project Euler, so understanding and solving this would require some more practice with advanced math topics including modular arithmetic and number theory.

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