## Intermediate Value Theorem

### The Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) is a fundamental result in calculus that relates to the continuity of a function

The Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) is a fundamental result in calculus that relates to the continuity of a function. It states that if a function is continuous on a closed interval [a, b], and takes on values f(a) and f(b) at the endpoints of the interval, then it must also take on every value between f(a) and f(b) at some point within the interval.

In simpler terms, the Intermediate Value Theorem asserts that if you have a continuous function defined on an interval, and you know that the function starts at one value and ends at another value on that interval, then at some point in between, the function must pass through every value between the starting and ending values.

To illustrate this, let’s consider an example. Imagine we have a function f(x) = x^2 – 4 defined on the interval [-2, 2]. We know that f(-2) = (-2)^2 – 4 = 0 and f(2) = (2)^2 – 4 = 0. So, according to the Intermediate Value Theorem, since the function takes on the value 0 at both endpoints, it must also take on the value of 1 at some point within the interval.

The Intermediate Value Theorem is often used in calculus to prove the existence of solutions to equations or to show that a function must cross a certain value. It provides a powerful tool to analyze the behavior of functions and establish important mathematical results.

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