## Integration of powers

### To understand the integration of powers, let’s start with the basic rules of integration

To understand the integration of powers, let’s start with the basic rules of integration. The basic rule states that if you have a function f(x), then the integral of f(x) with respect to x is denoted by ∫f(x)dx.

Now, let’s discuss the integration of powers. For simplicity, let’s consider the power function x^n, where n is any real number except for -1.

1. Integration of x^n for n ≠ -1:

When integrating x^n, where n ≠ -1, you can use the power rule of integration. According to this rule, the integral of x^n with respect to x is given by:

∫x^n dx = (1/(n+1)) * x^(n+1) + C

Here, C represents the constant of integration.

For example, if you want to find the integral of x^3, you can apply the power rule:

∫x^3 dx = (1/(3+1)) * x^(3+1) + C

= (1/4) * x^4 + C

2. Integration of x^(-1):

As mentioned earlier, the power rule doesn’t apply to x^(-1). However, we can still evaluate its integral. The integral of x^(-1) with respect to x is given by:

∫x^(-1) dx = ln|x| + C

Here, ln(x) represents the natural logarithm of x, and |x| denotes the absolute value of x.

For example, if you want to find the integral of x^(-1), you can use the above expression:

∫x^(-1) dx = ln|x| + C

These are the basic rules for integrating powers. It is important to remember that the power rule only applies when the power is not equal to -1. Also, keep in mind the constant of integration (C) while evaluating integrals.

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